|Keywords||incontinence brain imaging|
|Target Audience||physicians - urologists,urogynecologists, geriatricians; nurses, physical therapists, clinical and basic researchers, medical and engineering students, clinical and research trainees|
|Aims and Objectives|
AIMS: 1. To provide an overview of brain imaging techniques (PET, fMRI, SPECT and fNIRS) and methodological approaches (e.g. bladder filling using infusion/withdrawal protocol) to study brain-bladder control. 2. Review functional brain anatomy (e.g. regions/centres) of normal and impaired bladder control and effect of clinical interventions: - micturition and storage - urgency and detrusor overactivity - advanced age, neurodegenerative diseases, spinal cord injury - imaging studies on biofeedback, anticholinergics, neuromodulation OBJECTIVES: 1. To advance understanding of brain's role and imaging methods in continence research. 2. Discuss with audience about translation of brain-imaging research into clinical practice.