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Prosthesis/Graft Complication Classification Code:





  1. Multiple complications may occur in the same patient. There may be early and late complications in the same patient. i.e. All complications to be listed. Tables of complications may often be procedure specific.
  2. The highest final category for any single complication should be used if there is a change over time.
  3. Urinary tract infections and functional issues (apart from 4B) have not been included.
Table 1: Terminology involved in the Classification
PROSTHESISA fabricated substitute to assist a damaged body part or to augment or stabilize a hypoplastic structure
A: MeshA (prosthetic) network fabric or structure
B: ImplantA surgically inserted or embedded (prosthetic) device
C: Tape (Sling)A flat strip of synthetic material
GRAFTAny tissue or organ for transplantation. This term will refer to biological materials inserted
A: Autologous GraftsFrom the woman’s own tissues e.g. dura mater, rectus sheath or fascia lata
B: AllograftsFrom post-mortem tissue banks
C: XenograftsFrom other species e.g. modified porcine dermis, porcine small intestine, bovine pericardium
TROCARNarrow prosthetic / graft insertion needle / device
COMPLICATIONA morbid process or event that occurs during the course of a surgery that is not an essential part of that surgery
CONTRACTIONShrinkage or reduction in size
PROMINENCEParts that protrude beyond the surface (e.g. due to wrinkling or folding with no epithelial separation)
SEPARATIONPhysically disconnected (e.g. vaginal epithelium)
EXPOSUREA condition of displaying, revealing, exhibiting or making accessible e.g. vaginal mesh exposure.
EXTRUSIONPassage gradually out of a body structure or tissue
COMPROMISEBring into danger
PERFORATIONAbnormal opening into a hollow organ or viscus
DEHISCENCEA bursting open or gaping along natural or sutured line
PDFIUGA/ICS Joint Terminology and Classification of Complications Related Directly to the Insertion of Prostheses (Meshes, Implants, Tapes) or Grafts In Female Pelvic Floor Surgery
Bernard T Haylen*o, Robert M Freeman*^o, Steven E Swift*o, Michel Cossono, G Willy Davilaº, Jan Depresto, Peter L Dwyer*o, Brigitte Fattonº, Ervin Kocjancico, Joseph Lee*, Chris Maherº, Eckhard Petri*, Diaa E Rizk*, Peter K Sand*, Gabriel N Schaer*, Ralph Webb^o
Standardization and Terminology Committee, International Urogynecological Association (IUGA)* & International Continence Society (ICS)^; Joint IUGA/ICS Working Group on Complications Terminologyo
This ICS-IUGA Joint Standardisation report is being published simultaneously in January 2011 with the permission of both publishers:
  • Neurourology and Urodynamics, Wiley-Liss Inc.
  • International Urogynecology Journal, Springer-Verlag London Ltd.