|Keywords||urethral pressure urodynamics continence|
|Target Audience||urodynamicists, gynecologists, urologists|
|Aims and Objectives|
While the urodynamics of bladder storage and voiding function are well developed, the measurement of urethral closure function is still under significant discussion. A large variety of different techniques to measure urethral closure pressures have been proposed and used in clinical studies, and new technologies are in development: perfusion techniques, balloons, micro-transducers, leak-point-pressures, and recently new sleeves, or reflectometry. These techniques are carefully evaluated and compared and advantages and problems are outlined. Further, the needs and potential for improvement are identified and criteria for development and standardisation of suitable measure of urethral continence functions are discussed.