Neuromodulation has become a mainstay of third line therapies for treatment of overactive bladder refractory to conservative measures and pharmacotherapy. Although a variety of approaches have been studied, two have emerged as the most commonly offered techniques: posterior tibial nerve stimulation and sacral neuromodulation via an implantable device.
The development of these options is the result of a fascinating journey propelled by the sophisticated out-of-the-box thinking of several remarkably innovative individuals. A study of the history of neuromodulation for pelvic floor disorders reveals the creativity and genius of those who were instrumental in developing this valuable therapy. Starting from the advent of electricity and the role it played in mapping neuromuscular anatomy, this lecture will present the evolution of a technique that now benefits millions of individuals with pelvic floor disorders of both bowel and bladder worldwide.