In total, 2,802 women underwent surgery for stage IV pelvic organ prolapse from 2006-2016. Mean age was 65.4 +/- 11.2 years, and gynecologic surgeons performed 97.7% of these surgeries. Overall, 46.7% of patients underwent an apical suspension: sacral colpopexy in 487 patients (17.4%), sacrospinous ligament or iliococcygus suspension in 429 patients (15.3%), and uterosacral ligament suspensions in 398 patients (14.2%). 56.9% (n=1593) of patients had an anterior and/or posterior repair.
Concurrent hysterectomy was performed in 47.2% (n=1,323) of women, and vaginal hysterectomy was the most common surgical route (n=937). At the time of hysterectomy for prolapse, 61.6% (n=815) of women received a concurrent prolapse repair of any type, and only 38.3% (n=507) had an apical suspension or colpocleisis. Post-hysterectomy, 65.1% of patients (n=834) underwent an apical suspension (56.4%, n=834) or colpocleisis (8.7%, n=129).
On multivariable logistic regression analysis, apical suspension was less likely at the time of surgery in patients ≥80 years old (OR 0.42, CI 0.31-0.57, p<0.001) and in those who had a concurrent hysterectomy (OR 0.41, CI 0.35-0.48, p<0.001), adjusting for patient functional status.
Overall, 5.4% (n=152) of patients underwent colpocleisis. Mean age at the time of colpocleisis was ## +/- ## years. Colpocleisis was associated with older age (OR 57.6, CI 7.93-418.39, p<0.001 for age ≥70 years) and post-hysterectomy status (OR 0.2, CI 0.13-0.33, p<0.001 for concurrent hysterectomy) on multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for patient characteristics including functional status.
Finally, 7.9% (n=220) of patients had a mesh-augmented prolapse repair and 34 (1.2%) patients had a hysteropexy.