Hypothesis / aims of study
Although generally well tolerated, a urodynamic study is an unpleasant and stressful procedure for some patients. This study evaluated the effects of a heating pad on anxiety, pain, and distress during urodynamic studies in female patients with stress urinary incontinence.
Study design, materials and methods
A total of 74 female patients with stress urinary incontinence who underwent a urodynamic study between May 2015 and October 2015 were randomized to either the experimental group using a heating pad (n = 37) or control group (n = 37). In the experimental group, a heating pad was applied on the patient's sacrum during the urodynamic study. All patients completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (20-80) before and after the procedure and assessed their degree of pain and distress after the procedure by the visual analog scale (0-10). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate were also checked before and after the procedure.
Demographic characteristics, mean age, procedure duration, pre and post-procedural systolic, and diastolic blood pressures, and pulse rate were statistically similar between the experimental and control groups. The mean State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (30.9 ± 7.5 vs 42.5 ± 10.1, P < 0.001). The experimental group showed significantly lower pain and distress scores (Visual Analog Scale, 2.7 ± 1.5, 3.0 ± 1.5) compared with the control group (4.0 ± 1.6, 4.7 ± 2.0, both P < 0.001).
Interpretation of results
Mean age, procedure duration, pre and post-procedural vital signs such as pulse rate, systolic, diastolic blood pressure did not show statistical differences. The post procedural mean anxiety level (STAI-1) was significantly lower in the heating pad group than in the control group. The heating pad group showed significantly lower pain, distress score (VAS) compared with the control group.