A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study carried out in the medical clinic unit of a university hospital in the northeast of Brazil, with a predominant care profile of elderly people. We used the triangulation of the following data collection techniques: integrative literature review, non-participant observation of the care, (using field diary and script previously elaborated), and focus group workshops with the nursing team. For the review, we searched the Pubmed, Cinahl and Wiley Online Library databases using the descriptors "urinary incontinence", "aged", and "hospitalization" alternated by the boolean operator "AND". The selection of the material complied with the inclusion criteria: original studies in the form of articles published between 2008 and 2018 in any language. It were excluded repeated studies, research protocols still in progress and also those that did not answer the research question: what factors in hospital care predispose the emergence of urinary incontinence in the elderly? In addition to the answer to the research question, we searched for: the title, index base, year of publication and period, authors, language, study design, participants, study site, objectives, and main results. The analysis of the material collected in the review (13 studies) served to support the construction of the script used in the observation and to guide the discussion of the focus group. The observation of care demanded an initial approximation of the researcher with the field by means of the previous presentation of the proposal to the entire nursing team explaining its objectives, justification, and relevance. Subsequently, systematic observation was initiated which totaled 66 hours alternating between the morning, afternoon, and evening shifts for 18 days. The data of this collection were submitted for the summary reading where the relevant information was sought, focusing on the objective and research question. Thus, the observation script was important for a better understanding of the notes contained in the field diary. Finally, the focus group workshops began, which totaled four meetings, with the participation of ten professionals from the nursing team. The meetings previously scheduled with the participants took place in a hospital training room, ensuring a place free of noise and interruptions. The participants were identified by color to preserve their anonymity and the discussions were recorded with their prior authorization. The researcher moderated the discussions, explaining problem situations related to the theme, inciting reports, opinions and narratives of the group, regarding the maintenance of continence and the occurrence of urinary incontinence in hospitalized elderly. For the organization and operationalization of these meetings, given the scientific and methodological rigor required by the focus group technique, the researcher had the assistance of three more members, scholarship students of scientific initiation, who collaborated in the organization of the meetings and the demands during this one. The recordings were transcribed in full and analyzed after skimming reading through the content in the obtained corpus, to meet the research objective, triangulating and relating to the findings of each collection. Thematic categories were discussed based on the literature.