This is an English language literature review of surgical outcomes in (KC) patients who underwent reconstructive lower urinary tract surgery (RLUTS) or urinary diversion (UD) through 9/15/19. Two independent researchers read each paper’s title and if both found the paper to be relevant its abstract was read and then, subsequently, the paper itself; all disagreements regarding reliance were settled by a third party. The following search terms were employed to search Pub Med and Scopus ketamine abuse, ketamine abuse and surgery, ketamine and interstitial cystitis, ketamine abuse and interstitial cystitis, ketamine abuse and complications, ketamine and cystitis, ketamine abuse and cystitis, ketamine and cystoplasty, ketamine abuse and cystoplasty, ketamine abuse and ileocecocystoplasty, ketamine and ileocecocystoplasty, ketamine and enterocystoplasty, ketamine abuse and enterocystoplasty, ketamine abuse and augmentation enterocystoplasty, ketamine and augmentation enterocystoplasty, ketamine and augmentation cystoplasty, ketamine abuse and augmentation cystoplasty, ketamine abuse and bladder, ketamine and bladder, ketamine cystitis, ketamine cystitis and surgery, ketamine and urinary diversion, ketamine abuse and urinary diversion, ketamine and cystectomy, and ketamine abuse and cystectomy. In vitro, animal studies, letters to the editor, and papers that did not evaluate surgical outcomes were excluded.
We extracted the following data from each article: type of article (e.g. case report, case series, literature review), time period over which study was conducted, number of patients (male & female), age, symptoms, symptom scores, duration of ketamine abuse, , indications for surgery, type of surgery, surgical technique, alternative treatments, cryptoscopic findings, histological findings, pre and post-operative hydronephrosis, pre and post-operative serum creatinine, pre and post-operative maximum voided volume, pre and post-operative maximum flow rate, pre and post-operative post void residual, pre and post-operative compliance , pre and post-operative frequency, pre and post-operative nocturia, pre and post-operative cystometric bladder capacity, pre and post-operative urinary tract infection, pre and post-operative vesicoureteral reflux, pre and post-operative maximum bladder capacity, pre and post-operative pain, pre and post-operative strictures, length of follow up, reasons why complications, reoperations, and post-operative symptoms.
Continuous variables were represented as mean ± standard deviation, and categorical data are represented by number and percentage (%). The statistical significance of our data was found by acquiring P values calculated using a paired one tail T test. Statistical assessments were considered to be significant when P was <0.05.