The results from CMG for the intravesical agents with known irritant (Figure 1) and suspected (Figure 2) effects were graphed over time, with intravesical exposure concentration noted on the x-axis over time, with a separate data point noted for each complete CMG fill cycle. Concentrations of zero represent saline infusion. Mean voided volumes are graphed in 1x or 10x scale in uL where indicated. PVR volumes are graphed in uL for all animals. Pre-void bladder volume was calculated for each individual void by adding the voided volume to the PVR at the end of each fill cycle in order to determine beginning bladder capacity for each measured void, with the assumption that PVR was stable throughout each CMG fill cycle. Voiding efficiency for each void was calculated by dividing pre-void bladder volume by each unique void volume, and then a mean voiding efficiency calculated for each fill cycle. In order to normalize data for graphing on a single chart, voiding efficiency (e.g. 0.01 for 1%) for each intravesical exposure are graphed in 1,000x (1k) or 10,000x (10k) scale where indicated. There were no rats and no data points excluded from any of the figures.
With respect to the acids and irritants (Figure 1), intravesical acetic acid in various concentrations has been used to induce overactivity in many animal models of overactive bladder. On the other hand, citric acid, a common component of citric and acidic juices, is implicated as a known bladder irritant which exacerbates the painful symptoms of IC/BPS. Following exposure to acetic acid, there were stable reductions in voided volume which were 10 fold lower than that observed following exposure to citric acid. Acetic acid resulted in dose-wise reductions in PVR, with a pronounced acute exposure threshold beginning at 0.5 to 1% acetic acid, associated with increases in mean voided volume and mean voiding efficiency. Following exposure to citric acid, there was a universal increase in voided volume with marked improvement in voiding efficiency beginning at 0.001 mg/mL, continuing to 0.1 mg/mL. After the 1 mg/mL exposure threshold, there was a sudden decrease in voiding efficiency with a dose response effect which continued to worsen voiding efficiency and raise PVR, and progressively worsened with higher concentrations. Looking at the exposure to caffeine, which is implicated as a bladder irritant in humans with overactive bladder, there was a dose response threshold beginning at the 0.001 to 0.01 mg/mL concentration. With increasing concentrations of caffeine, mean voiding efficiency progressively increased and there was a dose independent loss of functional bladder capacity. Following exposure to capsaicin, there were initial improvements in voiding efficiency which began at the lowest concentration of 0.001 uM, and then beginning at the 1 uM exposure level, there was a progressive worsening in voiding efficiency concurrent with time dependent increase in PVR.
With respect to the artificial sweetener saccharin and ethanol (Figure 2), each of these agents, when administered intravesically, appear to exert a physiologic effect on bladder function. Following exposure to saccharin, beginning at the 0.01 mg/mL threshold, there appears to be a dose dependent increase in voiding efficiency as a result of loss of functional capacity and dose sensitive decrease in PVR. Ethanol has been implicated in humans as inducing diuresis as a result of increased intake volume (polydipsia) and subsequent increased urine output (polyuria), which may manifest as overactive bladder during the acute phase, or as urinary retention in the state of inebriation. Following intravesical exposure to ethanol in the rat, we found a slow loss in voiding efficiency which appeared to be dose dependent for intravesical concentrations higher than 0.1 % ethanol, meanwhile PVR was relatively stable throughout ethanol exposure. Following exposure to intravesical compound 48/80, a mast cell secretagogue implicated in mast cell destabilization, we found no obvious physiologic effect on cystometry up to 100 ug/mL in wild type rats.