Study design, materials and methods
From September 2019 to January 2020, 14160 22-year-old female junior university students from 2 universities in China were selected and investigated on the epidemiology of OAB by anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire included basic information, history of urinary tract infection (UTI), lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), intestinal symptoms, OAB symptom score (OABSS), Depression scale and Pittsburgh sleep scale. OAB is defined as urinary urgency with or without urgent urinary incontinence, usually with increased frequency of urine and nocturnal urine, but without urinary tract infections or other exact lesions. The diagnostic criteria of OAB were that the urination urgency score of OABSS was ≥ 2, and the total score was ≥ 3, Dry OAB referred to OAB without urgency incontinence (urgency incontinence score of OABSS=0); wet OAB referred to OAB with urgency incontinence (the urgency incontinence score of OABSS≥1. In addition, the relationships between OAB and sex, age, residence, body mass index (BMI), intestinal symptoms, UTI, menstrual regularity and nocturnal enuresis (NE) were evaluated.
A total of 12701 subjects (age 19 ± 1.0 years) were qualified for statistical analysis. The overall prevalence of OAB was 6.1% (770/12701) in junior university students, the prevalence of dry OAB was 3.8% (478/12701) and wet OAB was 2.3% (292/12701). The prevalence of OAB was related to BMI, NE, constipation, history of UTI and irregular menstruation (P < 0.05), but not with residence and age (P > 0.05). The depression score of OAB group was higher than that of normal group, and OAB seriously affected the sleep quality of patients.
Interpretation of results
The prevalence of OAB in this study is lower than that in other countries, which might be due to differences in OAB definitions, study populations and survey methods. The prevalence of wet OAB is lower than that of female aged 20-29 years old in another study (3.9%), which may be related to the age difference of the investigated population, and the subjects in the current study have a high level of knowledge and a high rate of correct response to the questionnaire. OAB patients frequently use toilets and are afraid to participate in social activities because of urgent and frequent urination, which leads to a series of psychological changes such as inferiority, shame and so on, which seriously affects the mental health of patients.