This session will explore the latest views on both existing and potential new strategies and alternative targets for directed at treating lower urinary tract dysfunction. Clearly there has been a major shift in both knowledge and consequently the emphasis of research into the structure and functional innervations of the bladder, with an increased emphasis on the role of the afferent nerves. This will be explored in detail with reference to both existing pharmacotherapy and potential new targets directed at both the underactive and overactive bladder. Physical therapy has an important role in the treatment of sphincteric weakness, but there remain a number of questions relating to the adjunctive role of electrical and magnetic stimulation, the longevity of therapy and the other potential applications of physical therapy to bladder dysfunction. We always need to look to the future and the third presentation will explore the evidence for nerve grafting, neuromodulation in the context of spinal cord injury, stem cell therapy, surgery directed at the underactive bladder and other potential options for the future.